2021 2(41)28

Differentiation of population incomes: prospects for reducing inequality in terms of digitalization

Pizhuk O. I.
Doctor of Economic Sciences, Assistant professor
State Tax University (UFSU), Irpin

Citation Format
Pizhuk, O. I. (2021). Differentiation of population incomes: prospects for reducing inequality in terms of digitalization. Visnyk ekonomichnoi nauky Ukrainy, 2 (41), рр. 213-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37405/1729-7206.2021.2(41).213-217.


This research provides an analytical assessment of the level of income differentiation, outlines the range of threats associated with the problems of fair distribution, and identifies the likelihood of reducing or increasing gender  inequality in wages in the context of large-scale digitalization of Ukraine and the world economy.
The methodological basis of the study is based on a systematic and dialectical approach, as well as general scientific and fundamental provisions of economics. To achieve the goal of the article, general and special methods of cognition were used. In particular, comparative analysis and synthesis – in the study of trends in the share of labour in GDP, growth or decrease of real wages and productivity in Ukraine, and growth average monthly wages by economic activity. Regression analysis and rank correlation – establishing the relationship between public access to the Internet and the gender pay gap.
Using regression analysis, based on statistics on the gender pay gap (Y) and the percentage of the population connected to the Internet (variable x), we hypothesized that digitization still can reduce gender inequality by identifying the dependence of Y from x. This hypothesis was also confirmed by calculating Spearman’s and Kendall’s rank correlation coefficients, which indicate a significant relationship between the level of penetration of the Ukrainian population into the Internet and the gender pay gap. The Pearson test was chosen as a mathematical tool to determine the probability of reducing gender inequality in wages in the future. The research results also suggest that premature deindustrialization leads to a decrease in the share of employment in production. This trend is likely to increase the defeminization of productive labour.

digitalization, labour productivity, wages, regression analysis, Pearson test, gender inequality.


  1. The World Bank. (2016). Doklad o mirovom razvitii «Tsifrovyye dividendy» [World Development Report “Digital Dividends”]. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/23347/210671RuSum.pdf [in Russian].
  2. A Digital report from McKinsey & Co. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/ru/~/media/McKinsey/Locations/Europe%20and%20Middle%20East/Russia/Our%20Insights/Digital%20Russia/Digital-Russia-report.ashx.
  3. Vyshnevskyi, V. P., Harkushenko, O. M., Kniaziev, S. I., Lypnytskyi, D. V., Chekina, V. D. (2020). Tsyfrovizatsiia ekonomiky Ukrainy: transformatsiinyi po tentsial [Digitization of Ukraine’s economy: transformation potential]. Kyiv, Akademperiodika. 188 p. [in Ukrainian].
  4. World Economic Forum. (2016). V avangarde mirovoy istorii. Pervyye 40 let. 1971-2010 [At the forefront of world history. The first 40 years. 1971-2010]. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Book_RUS_Maslow.pdf [in Russian].
  5. Strelkova, I. A. (2018). Tsifrovaya ekonomika: novyye vozmozhnosti i ugrozy dlya razvitiya mirovogo   khozyaystva [Digital economy: new opportunities and threats for the development of the world economy]. Ekonomika. Nalogi. PravoEconomy. Taxes. Right,  Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 18-26. Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/tsifrovaya-ekonomika-novye-vozmozhnosti-i-ugrozy-dlya-razvitiya-mirovogo-hozyaystva+&cd=12&hl=uk&ct=clnk&gl=ua. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26794/1999-849Х=2018-11-2-18-26 [in Russian].
  6. Karabarbounis and Neiman. (2013). Report. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/wdr; Report. (2016). Retrieved from http://bit.do/WDR2016-FigO_15.
  7. Bentolila Samuel & Saint-Paul Gilles. (2003). Explaining Movements in the Labor Share. The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 3 (1), pр. 1-33, October.
  8. Loukas Karabarbounis, Brent Neiman. (2014). The Global Decline of the Labor Share. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 129, Issue 1, February, рр. 61–103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjt032.
  9. Daron Acemoglu and Pascual Restrepo (2018). The Race Between Machine and Man: Implications of Technology for Growth, Factor Shares and Employment. American Economic Review, Vol. 108, No. 6, June, рр. 1488-1542. DOI: https://DOI.org/10.3386/w22252.
  10. Zaloznova, Yu. S. (2017). Ekonomichni ta sotsialni problemy rozvytku promyslovosti [Economic and social problems of development of industry]. Kyiv, ІІЕ of NAS of Ukraine. 288 p. [in Ukrainian].
  11. Razumkov Center. (2020). Tsyfrova ekonomika: trendy, ryzyky ta sotsialni determinanty [Digital economy: trends, risks and social determinants]. Retrieved from https://razumkov.org.ua/uploads/article/2020_digitalization.pdf [in Ukrainian].
  12. Tempy zrostannia/znyzhennia nominalnoi ta realnoi zarobitnoi platy [Growth / decrease rates of nominal and real wages in 2010-2020]. Retrieved from https://ukrstat.org/uk/operativ/operativ2005/gdn/tznr/tznr_u/tznr_u_bez.htm [in Ukrainian].
  13. Seredni zarplaty za vydamy ekonomichnoi diialnosti v Ukraini ta okremykh krainakh svitu [Average wages by type of economic activity in Ukraine and some countries]. Retrieved from http://edclub.com.ua/analityka/rubryka-cikavo-znaty-seredni-zarplaty-za-vydamy-ekonomichnoyi-diyalnosti-v-ukrayini-ta [in Ukrainian].
  14. Mamonova, V. Pizhuk, O. I. (2009). Genderni osoblyvosti dyferentsiatsii dokhodiv naselennia ta perspektyvy zabezpechennia yikh rivnosti v Ukraini [Gender specificities of income differentiation in the population and the prospects of securing their equity in Ukraine]. Aktualni problemy ekonomiky Current economic problems, 9, рр. 174–179 [in Ukrainian].
  15. Wajcman, J., Young, E. and Fitzmaurice A. (2020) The digital revolution: implications for gender equality and women’s rights 25 years after Beijing. No. 36. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/sites/default/files/Headquarters/Attachments/Sections/Library/Publications/2020/The-digital-revolution-Implications-for-gender-equality-and-womens-rights-25-years-after-Beijing-en.pdf.

Full Text (.pdf)